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Scientists Identify Unique Breast Cancer Cells That Control Their Ability to Proliferate and Colonize the Lungs

These cells can also trigger their own dormancy, allowing them to evade certain therapies

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These cells can also trigger their own dormancy, allowing them to evade certain therapies

Newswise — New York, NY (September 20, 2022) — Scientists from The Tisch Cancer Institute have uncovered a mechanism by which certain breast cancer cells regulate their own metastases, fuel dissemination from the original tumor site, and determine routes to invade distant organs such as the lungs, according to a study published in Cell Reports in September.

For the first time, scientists have identified a type of cancer cell in triple negative breast tumors, which is highly efficient in invading and colonizing distant organs but slow their growth upon colonization. These cells have a hallmark of slowed production of a protein called srGAP1, which is usually attributed to cancer growth.

Scientists also found in animal models that these unique cells trigger a phenomenon that keeps them in a dormant state in distant organs such as the lungs. This is an important finding because cancer cells have to efficiently survive at distant sites, and staying in this “asleep” existence allows these cells to evade therapies that target cancer cells’ normal rapid growth. Cells that are missed could later become metastatic.

“Our findings emphasize the importance of considering phenotypic changes that could occur when treating cancer cells with therapeutic strategies that target proliferating cells such as chemotherapy,” said Jose Javier Bravo-Cordero, PhD, Associate Professor of Medicine (Hematology and Medical Oncology) at The Tisch Cancer Institute at Mount Sinai. “While these treatment regimens target dividing cells, they may also be selecting for more invasive tumor cells. Our studies suggest that more selective therapeutic strategies combining treatments against both dividing cells and invasive dormant cells may be necessary to prevent metastatic disease.”

To conduct this study, researchers used high-resolution in vivo imaging to visualize extravasation, the process of tumor cells exiting the blood vessels to enter a target tissue. This event was observed in real time, revealing with unprecedented detail the early stages of tumor extravasation. The microscopy studies revealed that after these tumor cells invade the lungs, they enter into a dormant state by secreting the protein TGFβ2. The studies also showed that interfering with that protein can block tumor cell invasion into the lungs.

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Partners who contributed to this work include Stony Brook University, University of Illinois at Chicago, Janelia Research Campus at Howard Hughes Medical Institute and University of California at Berkeley.

About the Mount Sinai Health System

Mount Sinai Health System is one of the largest academic medical systems in the New York metro area, with more than 43,000 employees working across eight hospitals, over 400 outpatient practices, nearly 300 labs, a school of nursing, and a leading school of medicine and graduate education. Mount Sinai advances health for all people, everywhere, by taking on the most complex health care challenges of our time — discovering and applying new scientific learning and knowledge; developing safer, more effective treatments; educating the next generation of medical leaders and innovators; and supporting local communities by delivering high-quality care to all who need it.

Through the integration of its hospitals, labs, and schools, Mount Sinai offers comprehensive health care solutions from birth through geriatrics, leveraging innovative approaches such as artificial intelligence and informatics while keeping patients’ medical and emotional needs at the center of all treatment. The Health System includes approximately 7,300 primary and specialty care physicians; 13 joint-venture outpatient surgery centers throughout the five boroughs of New York City, Westchester, Long Island, and Florida; and more than 30 affiliated community health centers. We are consistently ranked by U.S. News & World Report‘s Best Hospitals, receiving high “Honor Roll” status, and are highly ranked: No. 1 in Geriatrics and top 20 in Cardiology/Heart Surgery, Diabetes/Endocrinology, Gastroenterology/GI Surgery, Neurology/Neurosurgery, Orthopedics, Pulmonology/Lung Surgery, Rehabilitation, and Urology. New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai is ranked No. 12 in Ophthalmology. U.S. News & World Report’s “Best Children’s Hospitals” ranks Mount Sinai Kravis Children’s Hospital among the country’s best in several pediatric specialties. The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai is one of three medical schools that have earned distinction by multiple indicators: It is consistently ranked in the top 20 by U.S. News & World Report‘s “Best Medical Schools,” aligned with a U.S. News & World Report “Honor Roll” Hospital, and top 20 in the nation for National Institutes of Health funding and top 5 in the nation for numerous basic and clinical research areas. Newsweek’s “The World’s Best Smart Hospitals” ranks The Mount Sinai Hospital as No. 1 in New York and in the top five globally, and Mount Sinai Morningside in the top 20 globally.

For more information, visit https://www.mountsinai.org or find Mount Sinai on FacebookTwitter and YouTube.

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Health

Observing World Cancer Day

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World Cancer Day is an international day marked on 4 February to raise awareness of cancer and to encourage its preventiondetection, and treatment. World Cancer Day is led by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) to support the goals of the World Cancer Declaration, written in 2008. The primary goal of World Cancer Day is to significantly reduce illness and death caused by cancer and is an opportunity to rally the international community to end the injustice of preventable suffering from cancer. The day is observed by the United Nations.

World Cancer Day targets misinformation, raises awareness, and reduces stigma. Multiple initiatives are run on World Cancer Day to show support for those affected by cancer. One of these movements are #NoHairSelfie, a global movement to have “hairticipants” shave their heads either physically or virtually to show a symbol of courage for those undergoing cancer treatment. Images of participants are then shared all over social media. Hundreds of events around the world also take place. (wikipedia)

https://stmdailynews.com/category/lifestyle/health-and-wellness/health/

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FDA Concludes that Existing Regulatory Frameworks for Foods and Supplements are Not Appropriate for Cannabidiol, Will Work with Congress on a New Way Forward

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Statement From:Janet Woodcock, M.D.
Principal Deputy Commissioner – Office of the Commissioner

January 26, 2023

Given the growing cannabidiol (CBD) products market, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration convened a high-level internal working group to explore potential regulatory pathways for CBD products. Today we are announcing that after careful review, the FDA has concluded that a new regulatory pathway for CBD is needed that balances individuals’ desire for access to CBD products with the regulatory oversight needed to manage risks. The agency is prepared to work with Congress on this matter. Today, we are also denying three citizen petitions that had asked the agency to conduct rulemaking to allow the marketing of CBD products as dietary supplements.  

The use of CBD raises various safety concerns, especially with long-term use. Studies have shown the potential for harm to the liver, interactions with certain medications and possible harm to the male reproductive system. CBD exposure is also concerning when it comes to certain vulnerable populations such as children and those who are pregnant. 

A new regulatory pathway would benefit consumers by providing safeguards and oversight to manage and minimize risks related to CBD products. Some risk management tools could include clear labels, prevention of contaminants, CBD content limits, and measures, such as minimum purchase age, to mitigate the risk of ingestion by children. In addition, a new pathway could provide access and oversight for certain CBD-containing products for animals.

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The FDA’s existing foods and dietary supplement authorities provide only limited tools for managing many of the risks associated with CBD products. Under the law, any substance, including CBD, must meet specific safety standards to be lawfully marketed as a dietary supplement or food additive. 

The working group, which I chair, has closely examined studies related to the CBD-based drug Epidiolex, published scientific literatureinformation submitted to a public docket, as well as studies both conducted and commissioned by the agency. Given the available evidence, it is not apparent how CBD products could meet safety standards for dietary supplements or food additives. For example, we have not found adequate evidence to determine how much CBD can be consumed, and for how long, before causing harm. Therefore, we do not intend to pursue rulemaking allowing the use of CBD in dietary supplements or conventional foods. 

CBD also poses risks to animals, and people could be unknowingly exposed to CBD through meat, milk and eggs from animals fed CBD. Because it is not apparent how CBD products could meet the safety standard for substances in animal food, we also do not intend to pursue rulemaking allowing the use of CBD in animal food. A new regulatory pathway could provide access and oversight for certain CBD-containing products for animals.

The FDA will continue to take action against CBD and other cannabis-derived products to protect the public, in coordination with state regulatory partners, when appropriate. We will remain diligent in monitoring the marketplace, identifying products that pose risks and acting within our authorities. The FDA looks forward to working with Congress to develop a cross-agency strategy for the regulation of these products to protect the public’s health and safety.

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Health

American Society of Nephrology Statement on U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Draft Research Plan on Screening for Kidney Diseases

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90% of Americans with kidney diseases are unaware that they are affected.

Newswise — Washington, DC (January 20, 2023) —The American Society of Nephrology (ASN) is encouraged by the recent U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) announcement to solicit comment on USPSTF’s draft research plan on screening for kidney diseases. This development follows more than a decade of advocacy in support of more kidney health screening by ASN and other stakeholders dedicated to intervening earlier to slow or stop the progression of kidney diseases.

More than 37 million Americans suffer from kidney diseases that impact virtually every aspect of their lives as well as their families and communities. Kidney diseases are the ninth leading cause of death in the United States, yet 90% of Americans with kidney diseases are unaware that they are affected. Prevention and early detection are key to preventing kidney failure and achieving kidney health.

People with a family history of kidney diseases and people with diabetesobesity, or other health issues, are at a higher risk of kidney diseases. Older adults, people with lower incomes, and people who are Black/African American, Hispanic/Latinx, Native/Indigenous American, Native Alaskan, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander are also most at risk for kidney diseases and kidney failure. Dialysis, the most common therapy for those with kidney failure, has a 5-year mortality rate worse than nearly all forms of cancer and requires billions of dollars annually to manage and treat. The recent approval of numerous therapies that successfully slow or stop the progression of kidney diseases mean it is more important than ever to screen Americans who are at-risk so they can access these effective, novel drugs as soon as possible.

“Early screening to drive faster more comprehensive intervention are critical components of a holistic prevention strategy for kidney diseases,” said ASN President Michelle A. Josephson, MD, FASN. “We fully support USPSTF and their efforts to advance the research agenda on this critical public health priority.” Dr. Josephson added, “The entire kidney community has contributed to this decades-long effort and ASN is committed to continuing our work with other advocates, including the Coalition 4 Kidney Health, and the USPSTF to prioritize screening for kidney diseases as USPSTF finalizes its draft research plan.”

For more information, please visit https://www.asn-online.org/policy/lac.aspx?ID=36

About ASN

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Since 1966, ASN has been leading the fight to prevent, treat, and cure kidney diseases throughout the world by educating health professionals and scientists, advancing research and innovation, communicating new knowledge and advocating for the highest quality care for patients. ASN has more than 20,000 members representing 132 countries. For more information, visit www.asn-online.org and follow us on FacebookTwitterLinkedIn, and Instagram.

Source: American Society of Nephrology (ASN)

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