Across the US, white neighborhoods have more greenery, fewer dilapidated buildings, fewer multi-family homes
A new nationwide study utilized millions of Google Street View images and linked built environment characteristics to racial disparities in adverse health outcomes such as diabetes, asthma, and poor sleep.
Newswise — Historic redlining and other racist policies have led to present-day racial and economic segregation and disinvestment in many cities across the United States. Research has shown how neighborhood characteristics and resources are associated with health disparities such as preterm birth and asthma, but most of these studies are limited in scale and overlook many aspects in a neighborhood that are difficult to measure, including dilapidated buildings and crosswalks.
Now, a new study led by Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) and the Center for Antiracist Research (CAR) at Boston University (BU) has utilized panorama digital technology through Google Street View (GSV) to identify these neighborhood characteristics on a national scale and shed light on how they contribute to racial and ethnic disparities in local resources and health outcomes across the US.
Published in the journal JAMA Network Open, the study found that predominantly White neighborhoods had better neighborhood conditions generally associated with good health, such as fewer neglected buildings and multi-family homes, and more greenery than neighborhoods with residents who were primarily Black, of other minority races, or of a variety of races and ethnicities.
The findings underscore the need for comprehensive and accessible data platforms that researchers can utilize to better understand the role of the built environment on racial and health inequities, and inform policies that aim to create equitable neighborhood resources in all communities.
“Large datasets on determinants of health can help us better understand the associations between past and present policies—including racist and antiracist policies—and neighborhood health outcomes,” says study corresponding author Dr. Elaine Nsoesie, associate professor of global health at BUSPH. “Neighborhood images are one dataset that have the potential to enable us to track how neighborhoods are changing, how policies are impacting these changes and the inequities that exist between neighborhoods.”
For the study, Dr. Nsoesie and colleagues analyzed national data on race, ethnicity, socioeconomics, and health outcomes, and 164 million GSV images across nearly 60,000 US census tracts. The team examined five neighborhood characteristics: dilapidated buildings, green spaces, crosswalks, multi-family homes, and single-lane roads.
The largest disparities in neighborhood environments were reflected in green space and non-single family homes. Compared to predominantly White neighborhoods, predominantly Black neighborhoods had 2 percent less green space, and neighborhoods with racial minorities other than Black had 11 percent less green space. Compared to White neighborhoods, neighborhoods with racial minorities other than Black had 17 percent more multi-family homes, while neighborhoods with Black residents and neighborhoods with residents representing a variety of races and ethnicities had 6 percent and 4 percent more multi-family homes, respectively.
The researchers also conducted modeling to measure how the built environment may influence the association between health outcomes and the racial makeup of neighborhoods, and found the strongest connections between sleeping problems among residents in neighborhoods with racial minorities other than Black or White, and asthma among neighborhoods with residents representing a variety of races and ethnicities.
“An interesting finding from our paper is how a considerable portion of the racial/ethnic differences of the built environment conditions was shown at the state level,” says study co-lead author Yukun Yang, a data scientist at CAR. “This prompts us to think practically about how state and local government and policymakers could and should address the inequitable distribution of built environment resources which could further address the health disparities we observed today.”
“Our findings really demonstrate the path-dependent nature of inequality and racial disparities,” says study co-lead author Ahyoung Cho, a racial data/policy tracker at CAR and a political science PhD student at BU. “It is critical to develop appropriate policies to address structural racism.”
True meaning of being “Woke!”
Stop listening to pundits who purposely distort the phrase
The term “woke” has become an increasingly popular phrase over the past few years. It is used to describe someone who is aware and engaged in social justice issues, and is often used to express a sense of solidarity with those who are marginalized and oppressed.
At its core, being “woke” is about being aware and understanding of the various forms of oppression, injustice, and privilege that exist in our society. It is about acknowledging that our society and its systems are deeply flawed and that these issues need to be addressed. Being “woke” means having a strong sense of social consciousness and being actively involved in the fight for justice and equality.
Being “woke” means being willing to challenge the status quo, speak out against injustice, and stand up for those who are marginalized and oppressed. It means being an active advocate for justice and equality, and understanding the interconnectedness of our society and the way that privilege and oppression intersect.
Finally, being “woke” is not just about speaking out and advocating for justice, but also about being actively involved in the process of creating change. This means being willing to put in the hard work necessary to create systemic change, and to work collaboratively with others who share the same values. It also means being open to learning, growing, and evolving, and being willing to take risks in order to make a difference.
In the end, being “woke” is about being actively engaged in the fight for justice and equality, and being aware of the unjust and oppressive systems that exist in our society. It is about being a part of the solution, not just the problem, and being willing to do the hard work necessary to create real and lasting change.
Dove Partners with LinkedIn in support of The CROWN Act to Help End Race-Based Hair Discrimination in the Workplace
#BlackHairIsProfessional sets goal to educate 1 million hiring managers and workplace professionals on creating a more equitable and inclusive work environment by the end of 2023
ENGLEWOOD CLIFFS, N.J. /PRNewswire/ — As part of Dove’s ongoing commitment to help pass The CROWN Act and end race-based hair discrimination nationwide, the brand has partnered with LinkedIn, the world’s largest professional network, who is committed to creating equal access to economic opportunity and creating more equitable outcomes for all professionals. While progress has been made to end hair discrimination with the passage of The CROWN Act in some states across the US, race-based hair discrimination remains a systemic problem in the workplace – from hiring practices to daily workplace interactions – disproportionately impacting Black women’s employment opportunities and professional advancement.
The NEW CROWN 2023 Workplace Research Study, co-commissioned by Dove and LinkedIn, found that Black women’s hair is 2.5x more likely to be perceived as unprofessional, and details the systemic social and economic impact of hair bias and discrimination against Black women in the workplace. Additional findings from the CROWN 2023 Workplace Research Study include:
- Bias against natural hair and protective styles can impact how Black women navigate the hiring process.
- Approximately 2/3 of Black women (66%) change their hair for a job interview. Among them, 41% changed their hair from curly to straight.
- Black women are 54% more likely (or over 1.5x more likely) to feel like they have to wear their hair straight to a job interview to be successful.
- Hair discrimination has led Black women to have a negative experience or outcomes within the workplace.
- Black women with coily/textured hair are 2x as likely to experience microaggressions in the workplace than Black women with straighter hair.
- Over 20% of Black women 25-34 have been sent home from work because of their hair.
- Young Black professionals are feeling the pressure from hair discrimination the most.
- Nearly half (44%) of Black women under age 34 feel pressured to have a headshot with straight hair.
- 25% of Black women believe they have been denied a job interview because of their hair, which is even higher for women under 34 (1/3).
“For far too long, Black women and men have been subject to unfair treatment, outright discrimination and a myriad of inequities for simply wearing our natural hair texture and hair styles that are inherent to our cultural identity. This includes being denied employment, being sent home from work, being overlooked for promotions, and a range of micro-aggressions. This may be hard to believe, but it is real, clearly unwarranted, and unacceptable,” says Esi Eggleston Bracey, President & CEO of Unilever Personal Care in North America. “The goal of the partnership between Dove and LinkedIn is to help put an end to race-based hair discrimination in the workplace. We intend to shine a light on this issue and call upon employers, hiring managers, and professionals to adopt equitable and inclusive practices that create a respectful and open world for natural hair.”
In support of The CROWN Act, Dove and LinkedIn have partnered on a series of actions to help end race-based hair discrimination in the workplace nationwide. Together, we will:
- Provide free access to 10 LinkedIn Learning courses focused on creating a more equitable and inclusive work environment, with a goal to educate 1 million hiring managers and workplace professionals by the end of 2023.
- Illuminate the real and measurable adverse impact hair discrimination continues to have on Black women in the workplace through the CROWN 2023 Workplace Research Study.
- Elevate and celebrate the real stories and voices of Black women professionals across LinkedIn and social media platforms using #BlackHairIsProfessional to help redefine what society deems “professional” at work.
While talent is equally distributed, opportunity is not. Cultural identifiers, like hair, are not determining factors for someone’s skills or experience, and no one should be denied employment opportunities or professional advancement because of their hair,” says Rosanna Durruthy, Global Vice President of Diversity, Inclusion, and Belonging at LinkedIn. “As Dove works to change legislation, LinkedIn is working to change workplace behavior by training and educating one million hiring managers and human resources professionals on inclusive and equitable business practices. The mission of ending race-based hair discrimination is critically important to our own desire to make work, work better for everyone.”
Dove will continue to drive awareness of The CROWN Act across platforms, encourage petition signatures, and support the passing of The CROWN Act to help end race-based hair discrimination nationwide.
Dove co-founded the CROWN Coalition in 2019 alongside non-profits including the National Urban League, Color of Change, and Western Center on Law and Poverty to advance anti-hair discrimination legislation and create a more equitable and inclusive beauty experience for Black women and girls. Since then, the CROWN Coalition has grown to an alliance of more than 100 organizations that work together to pass the CROWN Act.
Everyone can take action to help pass The CROWN Act to end hair discrimination in the workplace. Visit Dove.com/LinkedIn to learn more, sign the CROWN Act petition and access free courses that support a more equitable and inclusive work environment because #BlackHairIsProfessional.
CROWN 2023 Workplace Research Study Methodology
The 2023 CROWN Research Study surveyed 2,990 female identifying respondents in the US ages 25-64 (1,039 Black, 1,028 Hispanic, 1,064 White, with some respondents identifying as more than one race/ethnicity) between December 2022 and January 2023. All respondents were employed part or full time at the time of the study. The research was conducted on behalf of Dove by JOY Collective and Modulize, both specializing in marketing, data and analytics for polycultural communities.
Dove started its life in 1957 in the US, with the launch of the Beauty Bar, with its patented blend of mild cleansers and ¼ moisturizing cream. Dove’s heritage is based on moisturization, and it is proof not promises that enabled Dove to grow from a Beauty Bar into one of the world’s most beloved beauty brands.
Women have always been our inspiration and since the beginning, we have been wholly committed to providing superior care to all women and to championing real beauty in our advertising. Dove believes that beauty is for everyone. That beauty should be a source of confidence and not anxiety. Dove’s mission is to inspire women everywhere to develop a positive relationship with the way they look and realize their personal potential for beauty.
For 60 years, Dove has been committed to broadening the narrow definition of beauty in the work they do. With the ‘Dove Real Beauty Pledge,’ Dove vows to:
- Portray women with honesty, diversity and respect. We feature women of different ages, sizes, ethnicities, hair color, type, and style.
- Portray women as they are in real life, with zero digital distortion and all images approved by the women they feature.
- Help young people build body confidence and self-esteem through the Dove Self-Esteem Project, the biggest provider of self-esteem education in the world.
About The CROWN Coalition
The CROWN Coalition is a national alliance founded by Dove, National Urban League, Color Of Change and Western Center on Law & Poverty, to end race-based hair discrimination in America. The Coalition, now consisting of over 100 supporting organizations, is the founder of the CROWN Act movement and was the official sponsor of the inaugural CROWN Act legislation in California in 2019. For a full list of CROWN Coalition members, visit www.thecrownact.com.
The CROWN Coalition is proud to support anti-hair discrimination legislation to address unfair grooming policies that have a disparate impact on Black women, men and children and has drawn attention to cultural and racial discrimination taking place within workplaces and public schools. The CROWN Coalition members believe diversity and inclusion are key drivers of success across all industries and sectors.
Founded in 2003, LinkedIn connects the world’s professionals to make them more productive and successful. With more than 850 million members worldwide, including executives from every Fortune 500 company, LinkedIn is the world’s largest professional network. The company has a diversified business model with revenue coming from Talent Solutions, Marketing Solutions, Sales Solutions and Premium Subscriptions products. Headquartered in Silicon Valley, LinkedIn has offices across the globe.
Discussing Slavery in Classrooms — #1 New York Times Bestselling Author’s New Book Shows the Way
Kwame Alexander’s An American Story releases Jan. 3 and will help educators and parents start the conversation.
Book Title: An American Story
Publisher: Little, Brown Books for Young Readers
Publication Date: January 3, 2022
NEW YORK, Dec. 30, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — On January 3, 2023, Kwame Alexander, the #1 New York Times bestselling and award-winning author of The Crossover, The Door of No Return and The Undefeated, will kick off a national tour at Judy Blume’s in Key West, Florida for An American Story, a bold children’s picture book that explains American slavery through the voice of a teacher who is struggling to help her students understand its place in history.
Told through lyrical writing and stunning illustrations, the powerful, multilayered narrative by Alexander and artist/sculpturist Dare Coulter will take educators, parents and young people from fireside tales in an African village, through the passage across the Atlantic and the backbreaking work in the fields of the South to eventual emancipation.
“I wrote this book after a rather difficult parent-teacher conference back in my daughter’s fourth grade school year,” said Alexander, whose book The Crossover is a forthcoming Disney+ television series. “An American Story is for all teachers and parents trying to find their voices, trying to share a lesson that we all find so difficult to discuss. It is a story for readers of all ages — a story of a people’s struggle, strength, horror and hope that needs to be told and understood by all of us.”
Coulter, a longtime sculpturist and illustrator, said: “I want there to be these big assemblies of beautiful, hopeful kids reading this book, to whom we can say, ‘Yes, this did happen, yes, it is terrible; but the way forward is acknowledgement and understanding.’ I want readers to walk away feeling resilient.”
Alexander’s national tour for the book launches with a live virtual conversation from Judy Blume’s Key West, Florida bookstore, Books and Books, on Tuesday, Jan. 3 at 12 p.m. EST on his Facebook page (Facebook.com/KwameAlexanderBooks). The virtual event will be followed by a nine-city book tour, which kicks off on Jan. 5 in Raleigh, North Carolina and includes stops in Jacksonville, Florida; Charleston and Charlotte. Learn more at kwamealexander.com.
About the Author
Kwame Alexander is a poet, educator, publisher and New York Times bestselling author of 37 books, including the Caldecott Medal and Newbery Honor-winning picture book The Undefeated, illustrated by Kadir Nelson, the Newbery medal-winning novel, The Crossover (a forthcoming TV series on Disney+), and Becoming Muhammad Ali, co-authored with James Patterson. He is also a regular contributor to NPR’s Morning Edition.
About the Artist
Dare Coulter (she/her) is an award-winning artist, muralist, and sculptor whose primary artistic objective is to create positive imagery of Black people and families. She aims to install sculptures depicting Black joy around the world. Learn more at darecoulter.com.
SOURCE Kwame Alexander
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