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NASA’s SpaceX Crew-6 Safely Returns to Earth Near Florida Coast

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Roscosmos cosmonaut Andrey Fedyaev, left, NASA astronaut Warren “Woody” Hoburg, second from left, NASA astronaut Stephen Bowen, second from right, and UAE (United Arab Emirates) astronaut Sultan Alneyadi, right, are seen inside the SpaceX Dragon Endeavour spacecraft onboard the SpaceX recovery ship MEGAN shortly after having landed in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Jacksonville, Florida, Monday, Sept. 4, 2023. Bowen, Hoburg, Alneyadi, and Fedyaev are returning after nearly six-months in space as part of Expedition 69 aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

After splashing down safely in a SpaceX Dragon spacecraft off the coast of Jacksonville, Florida early Monday morning, NASA’s SpaceX Crew-6 completed the agency’s sixth commercial crew rotation mission to the International Space Station. The international crew of four spent 186 days in orbit.

NASA astronauts Stephen Bowen and Woody Hoburg, as well as UAE (United Arab Emirates) astronaut Sultan Alneyadi and Roscosmos cosmonaut Andrey Fedyaev, returned to Earth at 12:17 a.m. EDT. Teams aboard SpaceX recovery vessels retrieved the spacecraft and its crew. After returning to shore, the crew will fly to NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston.

“After spending six months aboard the International Space Station, logging nearly 79 million miles during their mission, and completing hundreds of scientific experiments for the benefit of all humanity, NASA’s SpaceX Crew-6 has returned home to planet Earth,” said Administrator Bill Nelson. “This international crew represented three nations, but together they demonstrated humanity’s shared ambition to reach new cosmic shores. The contributions of Crew-6 will help prepare NASA to return to the Moon under Artemis, continue onward to Mars, and improve life here on Earth.”

The Crew-6 mission lifted off at 12:34 a.m. EST March 2, 2023, on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. About 25 hours later, Dragon docked to the Harmony module’s space-facing port. On May 6, the crew completed a port relocation maneuver to the Earth-facing port ahead of the arrival of a SpaceX Dragon cargo spacecraft carrying new solar arrays, science investigations, and supplies to the orbiting laboratory. The crew undocked from the space station at 7:05 a.m. Sunday, to begin the trip home.

Bowen, Hoburg, Alneyadi, and Fedyaev traveled 78,875,292 miles during their mission, spent 184 days aboard the space station, and completed 2,976 orbits around Earth. The Crew-6 mission was the first spaceflight for Hoburg, Alneyadi, and Fedyaev. Bowen has logged 227 days in space over four flights.

Throughout their mission, the Crew-6 members contributed to a host of science and maintenance activities and technology demonstrations. Bowen conducted three spacewalks, joined by Hoburg for two, and Alneyadi for one, preparing the station for and installing two new IROSAs (International Space Station Roll-Out Solar Arrays) to augment power generation for the station.

The crew contributed to hundreds of experiments and technology demonstrations, including assisting a student robotic challenge, studying plant genetic adaptations to space, and monitoring human health in microgravity to prepare for exploration beyond low Earth orbit and to benefit life on Earth. The astronauts released Saskatchewan’s first satellite which tests a new radiation detection and protection system derived from melanin, found in many organisms, including humans.

This was the fourth flight of the Dragon spacecraft, which was named Endeavour by retired NASA astronauts Bob Behnken and Doug Hurley on its first voyage for the agency’s SpaceX Demonstration Mission 2. The spacecraft will return to Florida for inspection and processing at SpaceX’s refurbishing facility at Cape Canaveral Space Force Station, where teams will inspect the spacecraft, analyze data on its performance, and prepare it for its next flight.

The Crew-6 mission is part of NASA’s Commercial Crew Program, and its return to Earth follows on the launch of NASA’s SpaceX Crew-7, which docked to the station Aug. 27, beginning another long-duration science expedition.

The goal of NASA’s Commercial Crew Program is safe, reliable, and cost-effective transportation to and from the International Space Station and low Earth orbit, which maximizes research time and increases opportunities for discovery aboard humanity’s microgravity laboratory and testbed for exploration, including helping NASA prepare for human exploration of the Moon and Mars.

Learn more about NASA’s Commercial Crew program at:

https://www.nasa.gov/commercialcrew

Source: NASA

Black History

The Legacy of Garrett Augustus Morgan Sr.: A Trailblazer in Invention, Business, and Community Leadership

Garrett Augustus Morgan Sr.: Inventor, businessman, and community leader whose legacy continues to inspire generations with his groundbreaking contributions.

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Garrett Augustus Morgan Sr., a prominent figure in American history, left an indelible mark through his remarkable contributions as an inventor, businessman, and community leader. Born on March 4, 1877, Morgan’s legacy continues to inspire generations.


One of Morgan’s most renowned inventions was the three-way traffic light, a pivotal innovation that revolutionized road safety and traffic management. Additionally, his creation of the protective ‘smoke hood’ proved instrumental during the 1916 tunnel construction disaster rescue, saving numerous lives and highlighting his commitment to public safety.

Beyond his inventions, Morgan ventured into the realm of haircare, developing a groundbreaking chemical hair-processing solution that led to the establishment of the successful “G. A. Morgan Hair Refining Company.” His entrepreneurial spirit and dedication to innovation paved the way for a complete line of haircare products.

Morgan’s influence extended beyond the business world; he actively engaged in the civic and political advancement of African Americans, particularly in Cleveland, Ohio, and surrounding areas. His efforts exemplified a commitment to fostering positive change and empowerment within his community.

In recognition of his significant contributions, several institutions and landmarks bear Morgan’s name, honoring his legacy. From the Garrett A. Morgan Cleveland School of Science to the Garrett A. Morgan Water Treatment Plant, his impact is immortalized in various locations across the United States.

Notably, Morgan’s legacy was nationally recognized at the Emancipation Centennial Celebration in Chicago in August 1963, underscoring his enduring influence and importance in American history. His inclusion in the book “100 Greatest African Americans” by Molefi Kete Asante further solidifies his place among the most influential figures in African American history.

Morgan’s inventions continue to captivate audiences, with his safety hood featured on popular television shows like “Inventions that Shook the World” and “Mysteries at the Museum,” showcasing the lasting impact of his innovations on society.

As an honorary member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity, Morgan’s dedication to excellence and service continues to inspire individuals to strive for greatness and make a positive difference in their communities.

The remarkable life and achievements of Garrett Augustus Morgan Sr. serve as a testament to the power of innovation, entrepreneurship, and advocacy, leaving a lasting legacy that resonates with generations past, present, and future.

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NASA Tech Contributes to Soft Moon Landing, Agency Science Underway

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For the first time in more than 50 years, new NASA science instruments and technology demonstrations are operating on the Moon following the first successful delivery of the agency’s CLPS (Commercial Lunar Payload Services) initiative.

On Feb. 22, 2024, Intuitive Machines’ Odysseus lunar lander captures a wide field of view image of Schomberger crater on the Moon approximately 125 miles (200 km) uprange from the intended landing site, at approximately about 6 miles (10 km) altitude.
Credit: Intuitive Machines

Intuitive Machines’ Nova-C lander, called Odysseus, completed a seven-day journey to lunar orbit and executed procedures to softly land near Malapert A in the South Pole region of the Moon at 5:24 p.m. CST on Feb. 22. The lander is healthy, collecting solar power, and transmitting data back to the company’s mission control in Houston. The mission marks the first commercial uncrewed landing on the Moon.

Carrying six NASA science research and technology demonstrations, among other customer payloads, all NASA science instruments completed transit checkouts en route to the Moon. A NASA precision landing technology demonstration also provided critical last-minute assistance to ensure a soft landing. As part of NASA’s Artemis campaign, the lunar delivery is in the region where NASA will send astronauts to search for water and other lunar resources later this decade.

“For the first time in more than half a century, America returned to the Moon. Congratulations to Intuitive Machines for placing the lunar lander Odysseus carrying NASA scientific instruments to a place no person or machine has gone before, the lunar South Pole,” said NASA Administrator Bill Nelson. “This feat from Intuitive Machines, SpaceX, and NASA demonstrates the promise of American leadership in space and the power of commercial partnerships under NASA’s CLPS initiative. Further, this success opens the door for new voyages under Artemis to send astronauts to the Moon, then onward to Mars.” 

During the journey to the Moon, NASA instruments measured the quantity of cryogenic engine fuel as it has been used, and while descending toward the lunar surface, teams collected data on plume-surface interactions and tested precision landing technologies.

Odysseus’ surface operations are underway and expected to take place through Thursday, Feb. 29.

New lunar science, technology

NASA’s Navigation Doppler Lidar for Precise Velocity and Range Sensing (NDL) guidance system for descent and landing ultimately played a key role in aiding the successful landing. A few hours ahead of landing, Intuitive Machines encountered a sensor issue with their navigation system and leaned on NASA’s guidance system for an assist to precisely land. NASA’s instrument operates on the same principles of radar and uses pulses from a laser emitted through three optical telescopes. It measures speed, direction, and altitude with high precision during descent and touchdown.

“We are thrilled to have NASA on the Moon again, and proud of the agency’s contribution to the successful landing with our NDL technology. Congratulations for completing this first lunar delivery for NASA, paving the way for a bright future for our CLPS initiative,” said Nicky Fox. “Some of the NASA science instruments on this mission will bring us insight on lunar plume interactions and conduct radio astronomy. The valiant efforts and innovation demonstrated by Intuitive Machines is exemplary and we are excited for the upcoming lunar deliveries that will follow this first mission.”  

Now that they are on the lunar surface, NASA instruments will focus on investigating lunar surface interactions and radio astronomy. The Odysseus lander also carries a retroreflector array that will contribute to a network of location markers on the Moon for communication and navigation for future autonomous navigation technologies.

Additional NASA hardware aboard the lander includes:

  • Lunar Node 1 Navigation DemonstratorA small, CubeSat-sized experiment that will demonstrate autonomous navigation that could be used by future landers, surface infrastructure, and astronauts, digitally confirming their positions on the Moon relative to other spacecraft, ground stations, or rovers on the move.
  • Laser Retroreflector Array: A collection of eight retroreflectors that enable precision laser ranging, which is a measurement of the distance between the orbiting or landing spacecraft to the reflector on the lander. The array is a passive optical instrument and will function as a permanent location marker on the Moon for decades to come.   
  • Radio Frequency Mass Gauge: A technology demonstration that measures the amount of propellant in spacecraft tanks in a low-gravity space environment. Using sensor technology, the gauge will measure the amount of cryogenic propellant in Nova-C’s fuel and oxidizer tanks, providing data that could help predict fuel usage on future missions.   
  • Radio-wave Observations at the Lunar Surface of the Photoelectron Sheath: The instrument will observe the Moon’s surface environment in radio frequencies, to determine how natural and human-generated activity near the surface interacts with and could interfere with science conducted there.
  • Stereo Cameras for Lunar Plume-Surface Studies: A suite of four tiny cameras to capture imagery showing how the Moon’s surface changes from interactions with the spacecraft’s engine plume during and after descent.

NASA is committed to supporting its U.S. commercial vendors as they navigate the challenges of sending science and technology to the surface of the Moon.

“In daring to confront one of humanity’s greatest challenges, Intuitive Machines created an entire lunar program that has ventured farther than any American mission to land on the Moon in over 50 years,” said Altemus. “This humbling moment reminds us that pursuing the extraordinary requires both boldness and resilience.”

For more information about CLPS, visit:

https://www.nasa.gov/clps

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The Enigmatic Zodiacal Light: A Celestial Phenomenon Around the March Equinox

Witness the ethereal glow of the zodiacal light around the March equinox, a celestial spectacle connecting us to the mysteries of the cosmos.

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As the March equinox approaches, a mystical glow known as the zodiacal light graces the evening sky, captivating skywatchers with its ethereal presence. This luminous cone, visible just after twilight fades, enchants those in the Northern Hemisphere from late February to early March. Glimpsing this elusive spectacle requires a keen eye and a dark sky, offering a unique connection to the cosmos.

What is a false dawn?

The zodiacal light, often mistaken for lingering twilight or distant city lights, holds a fascinating origin story. It arises from sunlight reflecting off dust grains orbiting the sun in the inner solar system. Initially thought to be remnants from our solar system’s formation, recent theories suggest a Martian origin. These dust grains, ranging from millimeter-sized to micron-sized, form a delicate pathway mirroring the sun and moon’s journey across the ecliptic, the plane of our solar system.

For stargazers in the Southern Hemisphere, the zodiacal light presents itself as a hazy pyramid in the east before dawn, offering a celestial dance of light and shadow. Capturing this celestial ballet on camera can be a rewarding experience, showcasing the beauty of our interconnected universe.

The best times to witness this cosmic display vary with the seasons. Spring heralds the zodiacal light in the evening, while autumn reveals its splendor before dawn. The optimal viewing window extends from late August to early November in the Northern Hemisphere and from late February to early May in the Southern Hemisphere, aligning with the equinoxes.

To behold this enigmatic light, one must seek out a dark sky location, free from the glare of city lights. The zodiacal light’s milky radiance surpasses that of the summer Milky Way, offering a serene and awe-inspiring sight. Whether observed after dusk in spring or before dawn in autumn, this celestial phenomenon promises a glimpse into the vastness of our solar system.

As we marvel at the zodiacal light’s gentle glow, we are reminded of the interconnectedness of Earth and the cosmos. So, next time you find yourself under a starlit sky around the equinox, remember to cast your gaze towards the heavens and witness the celestial dance of the zodiacal light.

Source: EarthSky

https://earthsky.org/astronomy-essentials/zodiacal-light-false-dusk-how-to-see-explanation/
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